The Basics of Growing Roses: A Beginner's Rose Growing Guide | Mainaam Garden
A garden is incomplete without roses.
Roses are the most popular and beautiful flowering shrubs that have been a staple at any garden for centuries. They have come to glorify love and beauty and quite rightly so they are a sight to behold. Whether you have limited space at home or a large garden outside, the rose is definitely a must-have for all garden and flower lovers. Roses make an excellent garden plant and can be used to highlight any landscape.
Although growing roses may seem a rather daunting task, the sight of these profusely blooming flowers and the elegant fragrance will bring joy to any gardener. Growing roses for beginners doesn’t have to be a stressful endeavor. In fact, with proper planting and care, nearly anyone can become a successful rose gardener. Let’s know how you can grow a healthy rose plantation if you want to have your garden filled with beautiful roses.
SELECTION OF ROSES:
There are numerous classes of roses, ranging from micro-miniatures to grandifloras, and from ground covers to climbing roses, with some classes containing hundreds of varieties. While it may be tempting to fill your rose garden with a wide assortment, you are likely to end up with a disorderly array and too many plants for space. A few well-chosen varieties will give you more satisfaction than dozens of mismatched plants that don’t work in harmony.
If you want lower-maintenance roses, try shrub or landscape roses, like the award winning Knockout Roses or Cubana , for a more care-free rose garden and dense blooms.
Limiting the number of rose varieties you grow will help you avoid creating a disorderly and mismatched array.
CLIMATE FOR ROSES:
Know How Of Regional Climate
In different a range of climates, roses can be cultivated effectively and are surprisingly hardy. In places with bright sunny days, mild nights, moderate humidity and a lack of strong winds, quality blooms cab be obtained. Temperature for the day from 25 to 30 degree C and temperature for the night from 15 to 16 degree C is preferable, however a few days of heat is also tolerable. Around 12 hours of daylight and moisture around 60% to 70%, promotes growth and the production of quality flowers. Long days have a significant function at the commencement of the flower bud, but light intensities also affect the further stage of bud development. Promote early flowering with more light and higher temperatures under safe conditions.
Where to Plant :
Pick A Perfect Site
- Ensure plenty of sunlight: When deciding to plant the rose in your garden, balcony or terrace, it is important to choose a place that receives at least six hours of sun each day. Direct sunshine is ideal for roses. A minimum of four hours of direct sunshine is suggested for best results. Roses, on the other hand, can thrive even when planted against a north wall (with no direct sunshine). In cold climates, planting a rose bush next to a south- or west-facing fence or wall can help minimize winter freeze damage. To see a list of roses click here.
- Avoid intense competition from other plants: In the garden rose, the plantation area should not be too close to tall trees or other plants. The closer you plant your rose to other plants, the more competition there is for moisture and sunlight. For best results, plant your rose 1 m away from other plants and 60 cm from other roses. Avoid planting a rose under an overhanging tree branch. It does not prefer waterlogged conditions even for a short period and may lead to root rot. The location of the rose plantation should be free from dust.
- Avoid very exposed, windy sites: The base of the rose can loosen in the soil due to strong winds. This will cause your rose to shake in the wind, causing it to grow at an angle and, in severe situations, killing it. Make sure you follow our planting guidelines to avoid this. If you already have a rose with this problem, make sure the soil around it is firm. A stake may be required in some instances.
When to Plant Roses:
Cycle of season
Rose plants revel in low temperature and root growth is very active in the winter season. Aside from times of extreme weather, roses can be planted at any time during the year. However, irrespective of the locations in the hills, October is the most suitable time for planting roses. In a temperate climate, it can be planted in the open field from October-November and February to March. Rose plants are best planted in rows. To get maximum flowering shoots, roses should preferably be planted with a spacing of 20-25 cm from plant to plant and 50 cm row to row within beds may be required for Hybrid Teas and Floribunda. Roses should be planted on thoroughly prepared pits in beds. Before the operation of planting, this should be ensured that the soil just moist in beds. The depth of planting will vary with the type of planting materials. The budded plants are planted in such a way that the budding/matrix point should remain 5-7 cm above the soil surface.
Classification of soil
Rose plants grow well in medium loamy rich in organic matter, well-drained soil of at least 40 to 50 cm depth. The sub-soil must have the capacity to hold and retain adequate moisture. Clayey soils which are heavy and poor in aeration are not preferred by rose plant. In the case of clay soil, it is advised to mix sand and well-decomposed FYM (farmyard manure) to make it porous. A quality potting mix soil can be used to achieve a desire growth of rose. The best soil pH for roses should be 5.5-6.5 with an EC of less than 1. Nowadays, artificial media like cocopeat, perlite, and a mixture of cocopeat and perlite are preferred because they are inert, sterile and have no cation exchange capacity, so that applied nutrients are available to the rose plants directly. Roses fall into the sensitive category of plants with respects to salinity tolerance. Budded plants have less tolerance to adverse conditions of soil and climate than plants raised from cuttings.
Roses are perennial plants and will remain in the same bed for many years. The initial preparation of the soil should preferably start during the summer season. Before bed preparation mix the basal dozes of fully decomposed dry FYM @ 6-8 kg/ sqm. and quantity of inorganic fertilizer is depending on the fertility of the soil. In termite prone areas, anti-termite chemicals like chlorpyriphos should be applied to the soil before planting. Rectangular 30 cm raised beds with 40-50 cm wide path between two beds offers a certain advantage for cultural operations. The width of the bed should be 1.0 m and the length of the bed should be depending on the dimension of the playhouse. In the rectangular bed, planting two rows will be a good practice. The average plant population varies from 7 to 9 plants per sq.m.
How to Plant Roses:
Planting your bare-root or container roses properly will ensure they get off to a good start. A correctly planted rose will need to have the union and first inch or so of branches below soil level. This is to reduce the risk of suckers developing and damage by wind-rock. For a bare root rose the hole should be wide enough to allow the roots to be spread out and deep enough so that the base of the stems are just covered. We recommend using good quality compost, like John Innes No 3, especially if planting roses into pots. We would also advise adding a proprietary rose food or bone meal into the base of the hole. A handful is enough and this should be mixed in with the soil there to avoid root scorch. A little powdered food can also be sprinkled onto the removed soil before it is returned.Click here to check out our Rose collection
Alternatively, we would recommend using Peter Beales Roots Boost mycorrhizal fungi. Unlike bone meal, mycorrhizal fungi should be applied directly to the roots to promote better absorption of water and essential nutrients.
Never use wood-chips when planting roses!
The bare root rose should now be held with one hand at the right depth with the roots spread out, whilst the first of the soil is returned, either by hand or with a spade. When approximately half the hole is full the rose can be left alone and the soil firmed in by foot. The remainder of the soil can then be returned and firmed in the same way.
Once this is done the surface soil may be tidied and the rose labelled, there is nothing more annoying than not knowing the name of a beautiful rose.
Shrub roses should be planted at the closest 60cm (2ft) apart.
How Much to Water:
Roses are very fond of water and require one to two inches of it every week. During the hot, dry season, even more, may be needed depending on the size of the bushes. In spite of their need for an abundance of water, roses hate standing in water and provision for proper drainage is essential. Irrigation should be done during the morning time. Avoid evening watering, which could foster powdery mildew which is a very common disease among roses. During the rainy season, watering will be required only during the dry periods.As a guide, we recommend watering the following amount per rose each time you water:
- Shrub roses – 5 litres
- Climbing roses – 10 litres
- Rambling roses – 10 litres
- Standard tree roses – 10 litres
- Roses in pots – 5 litres
How to Water:
How you water is as important as the frequency. To keep roses healthy, avoid wetting the foliage. Use a soaker hose, watering can with a long spout, or a watering wand pointed directly at the soil.
- It is best to water as close to the base of the rose as you can. If the water is starting to flow away from the base, stop for a moment to allow the water to soak in, then continue.
- Don’t water over the flowers or foliage. Watering foliage can encourage disease problems, particularly if it remains on the leaves overnight.
- We recommend a softer spray rather than a fierce deluge from a jet spray or pressure hose. If using a hose, try to get a fitting that has a rose setting. If you haven’t got a special fitting, make sure the pressure is not too high on your hose.
- Newly planted roses.
- Climbing Roses are planted against walls due to the dry nature of the soil in that location.
- Roses planted in sandy soil.
- Roses planted in a pot or container.
When to Water Roses:
The need for watering varies greatly throughout the year and is directly related to the amount of rain that has fallen. We suggest the following:October - February:
Water once or twice a week if located in areas with low rainfall during winter.March-May:
Watch out for particularly prolonged dry spells of two weeks or more, particularly if the weather is warm. Newly planted roses – water every two or three days. Established roses – water once a week.June - September:
Established roses – water once a week. As your rose starts blooming, take note if your flowers are wilting. This will happen in extreme heat but is a reliable sign that your roses need more water. Newly planted roses – water every other day.
When to Feed Roses:
To produce a spectacular display of flowers, a rose shrub must be fertilized on a regular basis. Most roses need regular feeding throughout the growing season, which lasts all year except for cold winter months. For newly planted roses, add plenty of compost to the hole at planting time, and then provide a liquid fertilizer (synthetic or organic) about a month later, after they’ve established. Start feeding older plants in spring when new growth is about 6 inches long. Most will benefit from the second feeding of liquid fertilizer after the first bloom, and repeat-blooming roses do best with regular feeding every 2-3 weeks until late summer. Explore the garden fresh Shrub Roses
What to Feed:
Rose is a heavy feeder crop & it requires regular feeding of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are required large quantities. When nitrogen is deficient, the young leaves become small in size, develop pale green color with yellow and red tints and the buds develop poorly and are light in color. In North India, a high nitrogen dose is more effective for increasing stem length, flower yield and quality of flowers of cultivar Super Star.
How to Feed Roses:
Simply sprinkle slow release fertilizers around the base of each rose (see packaging for full instructions). If using a water soluble fertilizer, water around the plant with a watering jug.
Deadheading encourages repeat bloomers to produce additional flowers and improve the appearance and shape of the rose.These roses only bloom once a year, but they have other benefits such as vigor, a high petal count, brilliant colors, and a strong aroma.
Allowing roses to form hips, which carry seeds, signals the end of the growing season to the rose bush. However, by deadheading, or removing the wasted blossoms, the plant is told to create new blooms in order to create seeds.Also, to ensure the roses maintain their bushy and compact size, cut wasted blooms back to the first cluster of five leaves.
When to deadhead?
Repeat-flowering shrub roses and once-flowering shrub roses that don't develop hips should be deadheaded. If you want hips in the autumn/winter, don't deadhead hip-producing roses. This should be done as soon as possible after each flowering, up until late September. Because your plant is preparing for winter, you are unlikely to see much additional growth or flowering after September.
How to deadhead?
Three sets of leaves can be removed from each flowering stalk. To some extent, the amount you cut back determines the shape and size of your plant. If you're not sure, cut back to the point where the flowers on the stalk stop blooming.
PROTECT FROM PESTS & INSECTS
A Layer Of Protection
Roses are vulnerable to a variety of diseases and pests. Roses can thrive without pesticides, but they won't be particularly lovely. Adequate site selection, soil preparation, good drainage, proper spacing, cultivar selection, and plant upkeep are all essential for pest-free growing. All of these things promote robust roses that are better able to withstand disease and insects.
Greenfly (aphids), caterpillars, Red spider mite, Thrips and Red Scale are amongst the most common pests and insects.
What you need?
Natural insecticides like neem oil are the best option for naturally effective control of pests without toxic chemicals. Insecticides can be purchased at your local garden center.
When to spray?
When you see them.
How to spray to control pests
Greenfly and caterpillars can be removed by hand in the earliest stages. If spraying, see packaging for instructions. If infestation is heavy spray every 15 days for a month.
infestation and infection
Rust, black spot, and powdery mildew are the most common fungal problems that roses face. The English Rose family as a whole is disease resistant. However, in rare cases, they may also need to be sprayed.
What you need?
A fungicide spray such as Fungus Clear Ultra will be effective against black spot, powdery mildew and rust. Systhane is effective against rust. Fungicide sprays can be purchased at your local garden center.
When to spray?
We recommend spraying as soon as disease symptoms appear. To prevent disease from spreading, it is best to act quickly. For heavy disease spray a recommended dose every 15 days for a month.
Rose speaks a language of love, it has been a symbol of tradition for many centuries and with plethora of rich and vibrant history, it is obvious to nurture a desire to plant a rose. Mainaam garden, with over 500 varieties of roses to choose from is a place where you can hop in to check and buy from vivid collection.